Growing Pumpkins and Squash in the Pacific Northwest: A Gardeners’ Delight

Squashes, encompassing the beloved pumpkin, flourish beautifully in the Pacific Northwest’s temperate climate. From small-scale family plots to extensive farm operations, they’ve become a staple for many.

When it comes to variety, pumpkins like ‘Sugar Pie’ are perfect for pies, ‘Howden’ is the go-to for jack-o’-lanterns, and ‘Baby Pam’ offers a smaller decorative touch. Summer squashes such as the ‘Black Beauty’ zucchini and ‘Early Prolific Straightneck’ yellow squash are both popular and reliable. If you’re leaning towards winter squash, consider ‘Delicata’, ‘Butternut’, ‘Acorn’, or ‘Spaghetti’ as these have all proven to fare exceptionally well in our region.

For the ideal growing conditions, select a spot bathed in sunlight for most of the day; squashes adore the sun. The soil should be well-draining and enriched with organic matter. It’s a good practice to mix in some compost or well-rotted manure a few weeks before planting, aiming for a pH level between 6.0 to 7.5. Remember, vining squashes like pumpkins adore space, so provide 50-100 square feet per hill. The bushier varieties will be content with 2-3 feet between plants.

Planting season usually kicks off in late May to early June, ensuring the soil has warmed up to at least 60°F. Seeds should nestle about an inch deep in the soil. If you’re using transplants, they should sit at the same depth they occupied in their containers. Watering is crucial, especially during the initial germination phase and when they flower. Employing drip irrigation or soaker hoses can be a lifesaver as they keep the leaves dry, reducing the risk of fungal diseases.

As your plants grow, you’ll notice that squashes are rather voracious, feeding heavily from the soil. Fertilizing at planting and occasionally adding compost or a high nitrogen source during the growth period can work wonders. To manage weeds, retain moisture, and ensure the fruits remain clean, consider mulching with straw or black plastic. The damp climate of the Pacific Northwest can sometimes invite pests like squash bugs or diseases such as powdery mildew. Regular monitoring, ensuring good air circulation, and occasional use of organic fungicides can keep these at bay.

Come harvest time, summer squashes are best picked when young and tender. As for winter squashes and pumpkins, you’ll want to wait until the rind hardens and fully develops its color. Once harvested, summer squashes are happiest in the refrigerator for up to a week, while the winter varieties prefer a cool, dry place where they can stay fresh for several months.

In essence, cultivating pumpkins and squash in our Pacific Northwest region is a journey of joy and rewards. With attention and care, your garden will burst with hues and flavors ready to grace your table and warm your heart. Happy gardening!

Winter Wheat in the Pacific Northwest: Varieties and Vital Tips

Winter wheat, a crop traditionally sown in the fall and harvested in the summer, has become a staple for many Pacific Northwest farmers. The cool, moist conditions of western Washington can offer an ideal environment for this grain. But how do you choose the right variety and ensure a bountiful harvest?

1. Why Winter Wheat?

  • Erosion Control: Winter wheat’s robust root system helps reduce soil erosion during the rainy season.
  • Weed Suppression: As an early ground cover, winter wheat competes with and suppresses winter weeds.
  • Moisture Utilization: This crop takes advantage of the Pacific Northwest’s winter and spring moisture, reducing the need for additional irrigation.

2. Winter Wheat Varieties for the Pacific Northwest

  • ‘Stephens’: A soft white common wheat, Stephens is known for its high yield and good straw strength. It’s a preferred choice for many due to its resistance to stripe rust.
  • ‘Eltan’: Another soft white variety, Eltan is notable for its tolerance to cold temperatures and its strong resistance against stripe rust and snow mold.
  • ‘Madsen’: Widely grown, Madsen is a soft white variety that has shown consistent yields and strong disease resistance, particularly against stripe rust.
  • ‘Xerpha’: A more recent addition, Xerpha is a soft white wheat with high yield potential and solid resistance against stripe rust.

While soft white winter wheat is predominantly grown in the Pacific Northwest, hard red winter wheat varieties can also be found, albeit in smaller quantities.

3. Tips for Growing Winter Wheat Successfully

  • Soil Preparation: Ensure well-draining soil. Incorporate organic matter or compost to enhance soil fertility. Before sowing, consider a soil test to determine nutrient needs.
  • Sowing: Ideally, sow winter wheat about 4-6 weeks before the first hard freeze. This allows the plant to establish strong roots without producing too much top growth.
  • Depth: Aim for a seeding depth of 1-1.5 inches. Proper depth ensures better root establishment and protection from winter cold.
  • Spacing: Drilled seeding typically requires 20-30 seeds per square foot. Precise spacing aids in optimal growth and reduces competition between plants.
  • Pest and Disease Management: Monitor for common pests like aphids and diseases like stripe rust or snow mold. Timely identification and treatment are crucial. Rotate crops to reduce disease buildup.
  • Watering: While the rainy season in the Pacific Northwest might provide adequate moisture, ensure consistent soil moisture, especially during dry spells. However, avoid waterlogging, as wheat is sensitive to overly wet conditions.
  • Harvesting: Harvest when grains are hard and moisture content is around 12-15%. Too much moisture can lead to spoilage, while too little can shatter the grain.

In summary, winter wheat offers Pacific Northwest farmers a sustainable and profitable option for winter cropping. With the right variety selection, proper cultivation practices, and diligent monitoring, this grain can become a cornerstone of your farm’s annual cycle. Embrace the wheat wave!

Winter Crops for the Pacific Northwest: Thriving in the Chill

This is part one of a series of articles we will do focusing on farming during the fall and and winter.

The Pacific Northwest, especially western Washington, is known for its temperate climate and occasional winter snowfalls. While many crops prefer the sunnier, warmer months, several hardy varieties can be successfully cultivated throughout the winter here. Growing these crops not only extends your farm’s productive season but also makes use of soil and space that would otherwise remain dormant.

1. Why Winter Crops?

  • Soil Health: Winter crops can help in preventing soil erosion and suppressing weed growth.
  • Nitrogen Fixation: Some crops, like legumes, fix nitrogen in the soil, prepping it for spring plantings.
  • Revenue Stream: These crops can offer an extended income source and diversify a farm’s offerings.

2. Top Crops to Grow During Winter

  • Brassicas: This family includes kale, Brussels sprouts, and collard greens. These leafy greens can handle the cold, and some even get sweeter after a frost.
  • Winter Lettuce: Varieties like ‘Winter Gem’ are cold-resistant and can provide a continuous supply of fresh greens.
  • Spinach: Certain types of spinach, like ‘Winter Bloomsdale,’ are suited to colder temperatures and shorter days.
  • Root Vegetables: Carrots, beets, and parsnips can be sown in late summer and harvested throughout the winter. They sweeten up after the first frost.
  • Peas: Planting peas in fall can lead to an early spring harvest. Snow peas are a favorite, thriving in the cooler season.
  • Garlic: Plant in the fall for a summer harvest. The long growing season helps develop those deep, robust flavors.

3. Tips for Growing Winter Crops in Western Washington

  • Prepare the Soil: Since the ground can become more compact in the winter, ensure good drainage by adding compost or sand. This helps prevent root crops from rotting.
  • Choose the Right Varieties: Always opt for winter-hardy or cold-tolerant varieties specific to our region.
  • Protect Your Crops: Consider using row covers or cold frames for added protection against severe frosts and to extend the growing season.
  • Mind the Shorter Days: Remember, winter crops grow more slowly. Not only because of the cold but also due to reduced daylight hours. Be patient and monitor their growth.
  • Watering: While the Pacific Northwest can be wet, ensure that your crops are receiving adequate water, especially during dry spells. Overhead watering can be reduced, focusing more on root-level irrigation to avoid freezing on foliage.

4. Differences from Spring and Summer Growing

  • Pest Control: One advantage of winter farming is fewer pests. However, keep an eye out for slugs and snails, which thrive in our damp climate.
  • Growth Speed: Winter crops grow slower than their spring and summer counterparts. Adjust your expectations and harvest timelines accordingly.
  • Frost Vigilance: While many winter crops tolerate frost, it’s essential to be prepared for sudden severe temperature drops. Having protective measures in place can be the difference between a successful crop and a lost one.

In conclusion, winter farming in western Washington can be both rewarding and productive. With careful planning, soil preparation, and the right crop choices, your farm can flourish year-round. Happy farming!

a field showing different types of crops being grown

The Ideal PNW Crop Rotation for Soil Health

The Pacific Northwest, with its temperate climate and rich soils, offers a unique environment for farming. However, to maintain the health and productivity of our soils, it’s crucial to understand and implement effective crop rotation strategies. Crop rotation not only ensures soil fertility but also aids in preventing soil-borne diseases and pests. Let’s delve into the best practices for crop rotation in the PNW and highlight crops that thrive in our region.

Why Crop Rotation Matters

At its core, crop rotation is the practice of growing different crops in succession on the same piece of land. This method offers several benefits:

1. Soil Fertility: Different crops have varying nutrient requirements. By rotating crops, we can ensure that the soil isn’t depleted of specific nutrients. Some crops, like legumes, can even fix nitrogen from the air, enriching the soil.

2. Disease and Pest Control: Many pests and diseases are crop-specific. By changing the crops each season, we can break the life cycle of these pests and diseases, reducing their impact.

3. Soil Structure and Erosion: Certain crops, like grasses or deep-rooted plants, can improve soil structure and reduce erosion.

The PNW Crop Rotation Blueprint

Given the unique climate and challenges of the PNW, here’s a suggested rotation plan:

1. Year 1 – Legumes: Start with nitrogen-fixing legumes like peas or beans. These crops will enrich the soil by adding nitrogen, an essential nutrient for many plants.

2. Year 2 – Leafy Greens: Capitalize on the nitrogen-rich soil by planting leafy greens like spinach, kale, or lettuce. These plants thrive on nitrogen and will grow lush and healthy.

3. Year 3 – Root Crops: Rotate to root crops like carrots, beets, or potatoes. These crops benefit from the well-structured soil left by the leafy greens and help in breaking up the soil further.

4. Year 4 – Fruit-bearing Plants: Tomatoes, peppers, or cucumbers can be introduced now. These plants require a balanced soil profile, which has been achieved through the previous rotations.

5. Year 5 – Grains or Grasses: Consider planting grains like barley, wheat, or cover crops like ryegrass. These plants have deep roots that improve soil structure and prevent erosion.

Additional Tips for Successful Rotation

– Intercropping: Consider planting two or more crops together. For instance, planting radishes with carrots can help in pest control.

Cover Crops: During off-seasons or fallow periods, consider planting cover crops. These crops, like clover or vetch, can protect the soil from erosion, suppress weeds, and improve soil health.

Soil Testing: Regularly test your soil to understand its nutrient profile. This will help in making informed decisions about the next crop in the rotation.

In conclusion, crop rotation is an age-old practice that holds immense relevance even today, especially in regions like the PNW. By understanding the needs of our soil and the benefits of different crops, we can ensure sustainable and productive farming for years to come. Remember, healthy soil is the foundation of a thriving farm. Rotate wisely!


crops planted in parallel beds